# ASPD

Attack Speed or ASPD is the number determining how fast a character attacks. This parameter mainly deals with a character's auto-attacks, but it also acts to determine the Animation Delay of certain skills.

The maximum possible ASPD value is 193 for characters over level 100, and 190 for characters below level 100.

The amount of hits your character makes is calculated as such: ` 50 / (200-FinalASPD)` hits per second

Which means, a character with 193 ASPD will do 50/7 = 7.14 attacks per second.

## Formula

Our ASPD formula is based on KRO, which is very different from iRO's formula. You can expect to find it somewhat more difficult to attain higher ASPD here.

A Character's ASPD is calculated as follows:

ASPD Formula
ASPD1 FLOOR(Base ASPD - Weapon/Shield Penalty + Stat Bonus + (Status Bonus* AGI/200))
ASPD2 FLOOR((195 - ASPD1) * %ASPD) + ASPD1
Final ASPD ASPD2 + Flat Bonus

Which takes these following parameters into account:

• Base ASPD: A base number determined by the character's class. (To find this, go to an individual class page, like Hunter, and scroll to the bottom.)
• Weapon/Shield Penalty: A penalty based on the character's class and the weapon/shield being equipped.
• Stat Bonus: bonus based on a Character's AGI and DEX.
• Status Bonus (Potion Modifier + Skill Modifier): bonuses from status effects bestowed by ASPD potions and certain skills
• %ASPD (%Equipment Bonus + %Skill Bonus): Percentage bonuses from certain skills (such as Two-Hand Quicken) and equipment
• Flat Bonus: bonuses in the form of flat additions gained from certain equipment.

The Stat ASPD bonus is calculated differently depending on weapon type:

Bows, Instruments, Whips Other weapons
√(DEX²/7 + AGI²/2) / 4 √(DEX²/5 + AGI²/2) / 4

### Examples

Example 1 - Knight
A Knight with a Two-Handed Sword, using Two-Hand Quicken and Berserk Potion:
• Class: Knight
• Base ASPD: 156
• Weapon/Shield Penalty:
• Two-Handed Sword: -2
• Status Bonuses:
• ASPD Potion: 9
• Two-Handed Quicken: 7
• %ASPD Bonus:
• Two-Handed Quicken: 10
• Stat Bonuses:
• Total AGI: 90
• Total DEX: 60

Calculation:

• ASPD1 = FLOOR(156 - 2 + (√(60²/5 + 90²/2) / 4) + ( (9+7) * 90/200 ))
• ASPD1 = 178
• ASPD2 = FLOOR((195 - 178) * 10%) + 178 = 1 + 178 = 179
• Flat Bonus = 0
• Final ASPD = 179
Example 2 - Hunter
• Class: Hunter
• Base ASPD: 156
• Weapon/Shield Penalty:
• Bow: -7
• Status Bonuses:
• ASPD Potion: 0
• Stat Bonuses:
• Total AGI: 99 +6 = 105
• Total DEX: 60 +19 = 79

Calculation:

• ASPD1 = FLOOR(156 - 7 + (√(79²/7 + 105²/2) / 4) + ( (0) * 105/200 ))
• ASPD1 = 156 - 7 + 20 + 0
• ASPD2 = 0
• Flat Bonus = 0
• Final ASPD = 169
Example 3 - Merchant
• Class: Merchant
• Base ASPD: 156
• Weapon/Shield Penalty:
• Axe: -15
• Status Bonuses:
• ASPD Potion: 0
• Stat Bonuses:
• Total AGI: 26 +1 = 27
• Total DEX: 32 +4 = 36

Calculation:

• ASPD1 = FLOOR(156 - 15 + (√(36²/15 + 27²/2) / 4) + ( (0) * 27/200 ))
• ASPD1 = 156 - 15 + 6.2345 + 0
• ASPD2 = 0
• Flat Bonus = 0
• Final ASPD = 147